Arthur E. "Art" Frankel, M.D.

Chief, Medical Oncology
Arlene and Mayer Mitchell Chair in Medical Oncology

frankel-art.jpg

 

USA Mitchell Cancer Institute
1660 Springhill Avenue
Mobile, Alabama 36604
(251) 445-9807
afrankel@health.southalabama.edu 

 

Professional Profile

Education:
- A.B., Chemistry, Harvard College, 09/1965 – 07/1969
- M.D., Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 09/1969 – 07/1973
- Internship, Medicine, Yale University, 07/1973 – 07/1974
- Research Scientist, NIH, 07/1974 – 07/1978

Postdoctoral Training:
- Resident, Medicine, Stanford University, 07/1978 – 07/1980
- Fellow, Oncology, Stanford University, 07/1980 – 07/1982

Licensure: 
- Texas Medical Board
- NPI (National Provider Identifier License)

Board and Other Certification:
- Texas Medical Board
- Actively Board Certified in Medical Oncology, Hematology, and Internal Medicine

Honors and Awards:
- John Harvard Award, Harvard College, 1965
- Phi Beta Kappa, 1969
- Churchill Fellowship, 1969
- Summa Cum Laude, 1969
- Detur, 1969

Faculty Academic Appointments:
- Associate Professor, Duke University, 07/1985 – 07/1989
- Associate Professor, Medical University of South Carolina, 07/1993 – 07/1998
- Professor, Wake Forest University School of Medicine Professor of Medicine and Cancer Biology, 07/1998 – 07/2005
- Professor Executive Director, Hematology/Oncology, Scott & White Hospital/ Texas A&M School of Medicine Professor of Medicine and Head, Cancer Research Institute, 07/2005 – 07/2012
- Professor, Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 07/2013 – 07/2017

Other Professional Positions:
- Associate Director, Cetus Corporation, 07/1982 – 07/1985 
- Director, Florida Hospital Cancer & Leukemia Research Center, 07/1989 – 07/1992
- Chief of Medical Oncology, Mitchell Cancer Institute, 07/2017-Present

Committee Service:
- PRMC, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
- Clinical Advisory Committee of Cyclotron and Radiochemistry Program, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
- Oversight South Dakota Cancer Center, Sanford South Dakota Cancer Center

Professional Societies:
- American Society of Clinical Oncology, 1983 – current
- American Society of Hematology, 1996 – current
- American Association of Cancer Research, 2000 – current

Grant Review Activities:
- Oncology 2-Translational Clinical Small Business [SBIR/STTR] Special Emphasis Panels [OTC SBIR/STTR SEPs]Cancer Drug Development and Therapeutics (COOT) SBIR/STTR SEP [OTC-T], NCI, 2012 – 2015
- CTG IIT-E/L Proposal, NMRC Singapore, 2014
- LFB International Scientific Board, LFB Paris, 2015
- Cancer Association of South Africa-Science & Resource Centre, Grant Application, 2016
- Austrian Science Fund (FWF), Proposal, 2016

Editorial Activities:
- Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
- Guest Editor, Current Pharmaceutical Design
- Editorial Board, Leukemia Research
- Editorial Board, Expert Opinions in Biological Therapy
- Editorial Board, Current Cancer Therapy Reviews

 

Grant Support

Present:
Melanoma Research Fund
Local Philanthropy
Melanoma Research
$58,000
1/1/16-Present

T. Boone Pickens Cancer Research Fund
Local Philanthropy
Clinical Cancer Research
$100,000/yr
02/1/2013-Present

Angimmune, LLC
Clinical trial agreement to support a Phase I/II Clinical Study of A-dmDT390-bisFv (UCHT1)
Fusion Protein in Patients with Surface CD3+ Malignant T Cell Diseases (IND 100712)
$350,000
11/1/10-Present

Stemline Therapeutics, Inc
Clinical trial agreement to support a Phase 1 Clinical Study of SL-401 in BPDCN Patients
(IND11314)
$135,000
6/1 /13-Present

University of Minnesota
Clinical trial agreement to support: A Phase 1 Study of DT2219ARL, a Bispecific
Single Chain lmmunotoxin for the Treatment of CD19 ( + ), CD22( +) Blineage Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (IND 100780)
$140,000
11/08/2008-Present

Past:
Subaward UTSW IRC3CA1 50822 OPA#0007459
National Cancer Institute
Development of Novel Cancer Pain Therapeutic SP-SAP
$965,000
9/15/13-09/19/2016

G-08-072 (A. Frankel)
Gateway for Cancer Research
CD3 lmmunotoxin Therapy of CTCL
04/01/2009-03/31/2011
Role of CD3 lmmunotoxin in CTCL therapy
$298,218 Total Funding

LLS 6006-05 (A. Frankel)
Leukemia & Leukemia Society
Fusion protein therapy of elderly AML
10/1/04-9/30/09
Treatment and pharmacology of elderly de novo AML patients with DT3881L3
$400,000 Total Funding

NIH R01 CA90263 (A. Frankel)
National Institutes of Health
Targeting protein synthesis in AML
04/26/06-02/28/08
$1,011,928 Total Funding

NIH R01CA076178 (A. Frankel)
National Institutes of Health
Diphtheria fusion protein therapy of AML
12/12/1997-12/31/06
$1,682,947 Total Funding

NIH R21 CA090550 (A. Frankel}
National Institutes of Health
Combination fusion toxin and cytarabine therapy of AML
03/14/01-02/28/03
$716,000 Total Funding

LLS 6114-98 (A. Frankel)
Leukemia, Lymphoma Society
Fusion Toxin modulation of drug resistance in Acute Myeloid Leukemia
12/30/1999-12/31/02

LLS 6028-08 (A. Frankel)
Leukemia, Lymphoma Society
Fusion Toxin modulation of drug resistance in Acute Myeloid Leukemia
12/30/1999-12/31 /02

ACS IM-543 (A. Frankel)
American Cancer Society
Expression of Interleukin 2 Ricin toxin fusion proteins in saccharomyces cerevisiae
07/01 /1989-12/31/1991

ACS IM-543A (A. Frankel)
American Cancer Society
Expression of Interleukin 2 Ricin toxin fusion proteins
01 /01/1992-12/31/1992

 

Clinical Trials Activities

Present:
- The Nemo trial (NRAS Melanoma and MEK inhibitor): A randomized Phase III, Open label, multicenter, two-arm study comparing the efficacy ofMEF162 Versus dacarbazine in patients with advanced unresectable or metastatic NRAS Mutation-positive melanoma
PI-Arthur E. Frankel, M.D.
- A Phase IB Study of A-dmDT390-bisFv (UCHTl) Fusion Protein in Patients with Surface CD3+Malgnant T Cells Diseases
PI-Arthur E. Frankel, M.D.
- A Phase 1 Multicenter, Open-Label, Dose-Escalation, Safety, Phannacokinetic, Pharmacokinetic, and Clinical Activity Study of Orally Administered AG-221 in Subjects with Advanced Hematologic Malignancies with an IDH2 Mutation
PI-Arthur E. Frankel, M.D.
- A091201:Randomized Phase II Study Comparing the MET Inhibitor Cabozantinib to Temozolornide/Dacarbazine in Ocular Melanoma
PI-Arthur E. Frankel, M.D.
- A Phase 1 B Clinical Trial of Trametinib plus Digoxin in Patients with Unresectable or Metastatic BRAF Wild-Type Melanoma
PI-Arthur E. Frankel, M.D.
- A Phase III randomized, 3-arm, open-label, multicenter study of LGX818 plus MEK162 and LGX818 Monotherapy compared with Vemurafenib in patients with unresectable or metastatic BRAF V600 mutant melanoma
PI-Arthur E. Frankel, M.D.
- Therapy Targeting the Interleukin-3 Receptor (IL3R) for Patients with Relapsed Or Refractory and Elderly Elastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm (BPDCN) with DT388IL3 (SL-401) (IND#l 1314: a Phase IB Clinical Trial
PI-Arthur E. Frankel, M.D.
- A Two-Arm, Single Center Phase IB Trial of Bavituximab plus Ipilimumab in Advanced Melanoma Patients
PI-Arthur E. Frankel, M.D.
- A Phase 1 Study of Substance P-Saporin in Terminal Cancer Patients with Intractable Pain
PI-Arthur E. Frankel, M.D.
- E2607: A Phase II Trial of Dassatinib in Patients with Unresectable Locally Advanced or Stage IV Mucosa, Acral and Vulvovaginal Melanomas
PI-Arthur E. Frankel, M.D.
- A Phase III Randomized Study of Adjuvant Ipilimumab Anti-CTLA4 Therapy versus High-Dose Interferon Alfa-2b for Resected High-Risk Melanoma
PI-Arthur E. Frankel, M.D.

 

Technological and Other Scientific Innovations

Innovation Disclosures:
- L-Citrulline Supplementation During Arginine Depletion Therapy with Arginase.
- A Monoclonal Antibody Reactive to Human Tumor Endothelial Marker 8.
- Production of high-affinity anti-CD123 antibodies for cancer therapy.
- Anti-caveolin-1 Antibodies for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer
- W02009/017823 A2A Fold-Back Diabody Diphtheria Toxin Immunotoxin and Methods of Use

Patent Applications Pending:
- W02009/017823 A2A Fold-Back Diabody Diptheria Toxin Immunotoxin and Methods of Use
- 62/514,209 Specific Bacterial Species and Metabolite that Improves Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy Efficacy

Licensing of Technology:
- Notice of Allowance received U.S. Patent 13/884,899 Antibodies to Tumor Endothelial Marker 8
- Licensed U.S. Patent No. 7,763,242 tilted Methods for Treating Myelodysplastic Syndrome with a Human lnterleukin-3-Diphtheria toxin Conjugate to Stemline Therapeutics.
- Licensed U.S. Patent No. 6,060,066 Method for treating tumors with a toxin
- Licensed U.S. Patent No. 5,667, 786 Method for treating tumors with a toxin
- Licensed U.S. Patent No. 5,629, 197 Monoclonal anti-human breast cancer antibodies
- Licensed U.S. Patent No. 5, 169, 77 4 Monoclonal anti-human breast cancer antibodies
- Licensed U.S. Patent No. 4,962,188 Recombinant ricin toxin A chain conjugates
- Licensed U.S. Patent No. 4,958,009 Anti-human ovarian cancer immunotoxins and methods of use thereof
- Licensed U.S. Patent No. 4,956,453 Anti-human ovarian cancer immunotoxins and methods of use thereof
- Licensed U.S. Patent No. 4,938,948 Method for imaging breast tumors using labeled monoclonal antihuman breast cancer antibodies
- Licensed U.S. Patent No. 4,803, 169 Assay for human breast cancer
- Licensed U.S. Patent No. 4, 753,894 Monoclonal anti-human breast cancer antibodies
- Licensed U.S. Patent No. 4,555,957 Bi-directional liquid sample handling system

Service to the Community:
- UTSW, Phase 1 Clinical Trials Marketing and Community Outreach, 2014-present 

Invited Lectures:
- SAB Erytech Pharma, France, 2013

 

Bibliography

Peer-Reviewed Publications:

Original Research Articles
1. Frankel AE, Neubauer R, Fischinger P. Fractionation of DNA nucleotide transcripts from Moloney sarcoma virus and isolation of sarcoma virus specific complimentary DNA.  J Virol 18:481-90, 1976.
2. Frankel AE, Fischinger P.  Nucleotide sequences in mouse DNA and RNA specific for Moloney sarcoma virus.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 73:3705-9, 1976.
3. Frankel AE, Fischinger P. Rate of divergence of cellular sequences homologous to segments of Moloney sarcoma virus. J Virol 21: 153-60, 1977.
4. Frankel AE, Gilbert J, Fischinger P.   Effect of helper virus on the number of murine sarcoma virus DNA copies in infected mammalian cells.  J Virol 23:492-502, 1977.
5. Frankel AE, Haapala D, Neubauer R, Fischinger P.   Elimination of the sarcoma genome from murine sarcoma virus transformed cat cells.  Science 191:1264-86, 1978.
6. Frankel AE, Fischinger P.  Selective amplification of murine sarcoma virus proviral DNA in productively infected mammalian cells.  In:  Advances in Comparative Leukemia Research 1977. Ed: P. Bentvelzen, J. Hilgers, D. Yohn.   Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam,  pp171-3, 1978.
7. Fischinger P, Frankel, AE, Elder J, Lerner R, Ihle J, Bolognesi D.  Biological, immunological, and biochemical evidence that HIX virus is a recombinant between Moloney leukemia virus and the murine xenotropic C type virus.   Virology 90:241-54, 1978.
8. Frankel AE, Gilbert J, Porzig K, Scolnick E, Aaronson S. Nature and distribution of feline sarcoma virus nucleotide sequences. J Virol 30:821-7,1979.
9. Fawcett H, Lantieri R, Frankel AE, McDougall I. Differentiating hepatic abcess from tumor--combined lllIndium white blood cells and 99mTc liver scan. Amer J Roentgen 135:53-56,1980.
10. Frankel AE, Rubenstein M, Wall R.  Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: Prolonged coma with recovery of neurologic function with intensive plasma exchange.  Amer J Hematology 10:387-90, 1981
11. Fischinger P, Blevins C, Frankel AE, Tuttle-Fuller N, Haapala D, Nomura S, Robey W. Reversion of cat cells transformed by MSV-biological, immunological and molecular properties of flat variant cells.  Cancer Research 41:958-65, 1981
12. Frankel AE, Rouse R, Herzenberg L. Human prostate specific and shared differentiation and antigens defined by monoclonal antibodies. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:903-7, 1982.
13. Frankel AE, Rouse R, Wang C, Chu T, Herzenberg L. Monoclonal antibodies to a human prostate antigen.  Cancer Research 42:3714-8, 1982
14. Minowada J, Minato K, Tatsumi E, Sugimoto T, Nakazawa S, Ohnuma T, Jubonishi I, Miyoshi I, Frankel AE.Differentiation as determined by multiple markers of leukemia-lymphomas. Hematology and Blood Transfusion 28:348-50,1982
15. Frankel AE, Ring D, Tringale F. Tissue distribution of breast cancer associated antigens defined by monoclonal antibodies.  J Biol Resp Mod 4:273-86, 1985.
16. Bjorn M, Ring D, Frankel AE. Evaluation of monoclonal antibodies for the development of breast cancer immunotoxins. Cancer Research 45:1214-21, 1985.
17. Pirker R, Fitzgerald D, Hamilton T, Ozols R, Laird W, Frankel AE, Willingham M, Pastan I.  Characterization of immunotoxins active against ovarian cancer cells lines.  J Clin Invest 76:1261-7, 1985
18. McGuire W, Ceriani R, Schlom J. Frankel AE. Monoclonal antibodies, benign breast disease, and breast cancer; a panel discussion.  Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 6:37-47, 1985.
19. Frankel AE, Houston L, Issell B, Fathman G. Prospects for immunotoxin therapy in cancer. Ann Rev Med 37:125-42, 1986
20. Fitzgerald D, Bjorn M, Ferris R, Winkelhake J, Frankel AE, Hamilton T, Ozols R, Willingham M, Pastan I. Antitumor activity of an immunotoxin in a nude mouse model of human ovarian cancer.  Cancer Research 47:1407-10, 1987
21. Hertler A, Spitler L, Frankel AE.   Humoral immune response to a ricin A chain immunotoxin in patients with metastatic melanoma.  Cancer Drug Delivery 4:245-53, 1987.
22. Hertler A, Schlossman D, Borowitz M, Laurent G, Jansen F, Schmidt C, Frankel AE.  A phase I study of T101-ricin A chain immunotoxin in refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  J Biol Resp Mod 7:97-113, 1988
23. Hertler, AE, Schlossman D, Borowitz M, Poplack D, Frankel AE.   An immunotoxin for the treatment of T-acute lymphoblastic leukemic meningitis: Studies in rhesus monkeys.Cancer Immunol Immunother 28:59-66, 1989
24. Hertler A, Schlossman D, Borowitz M, Blythman H, Casellas P, Frankel AE.  An anti-CD5 immunotoxin for chronic lymphocytic leukemia: Enhancement of cytotoxicity with human serum albumin-monensin.  Int J Cancer 43:215-9, 1989
25. Frankel AE, Welsh P, Hertler A, Withers D, Johnston S, Schlossman D.  Selection and characterization of mutants of ricin toxin A chain in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.Mol Cell Biol 9:415-20, 1989.
26. Gould B, Borowitz M, Groves E, Carter P, Anthony D, Weiner J, Frankel AE.  phase I study of a continuous infusion anti-breast cancer immunotoxin: Report of a targeted toxicity not predicted by animal studies.JNCI 81:775-81, 1989.
27. Ring D, Kassel J, Hsieh-Ma S, Bjorn M, Tringale F, Eaton A, Reid S, Frankel AE, Nadji M.   Distribution and physical properties of BCA200, a 200,000 dalton glycoprotein selectively associated with human breast cancer.  Cancer Research 49:3070-80, 1989
28. Hertler A, Frankel AE.   Immunotoxins: A clinical review of their use in the treatment of malignancies.  J Clin Oncol 17:1932-42, 1989.
29. Schlossman D, Withers D, Welsh P, Alexander A, Robertus J, Frankel AE.  Expression and characterization of mutants of ricin toxin A chain in Escherichia coli.  Mol Cell Biol 9:5012-21, 1989.
30. Frankel AE, Welsh P, Alexander A, Robertus J.   Role of arginine 180 and glutamic acid 177 of ricin toxin A chain in enzymatic inactivation of ribosomes.  Mol Cell Biol 10:6257-63, 1990.
31. Oeltmann T, Frankel AE. Advances in immunotoxins.  FASEB J  4:2334-7, 1991.
32. Hertler A, Frankel AE. Immunotoxins in the therapy of leukemia and lymphomas. Cancer Investigations 9:211-9,1991
33. Pai L, Bookman M, Ozols R, Young R, Smith J, Longo D, Gould  B, Frankel AE, McClay E, Howell S, Reed E, Willingham M, Fitzgerald D, Pastan I. Clinical evaluation of intraperitoneal pseudomonas exotoxin immunoconjugates OVB3-PE in patients with ovarian cancer.  J Clin Oncol 9:2095-103, 1991
34. Li B, Frankel AE, Ramakrishnan S. High-level expression and simplified purification of recombinant ricin A chain. Protein Expression and Purification 3:386-94, 1992.
35. Frankel AE. Immunotoxin therapy of cancer. Oncology 7: 69-78, 1993.
36. Uckun F, Frankel AE.  The current status of immunotoxins: An overview of experimental and clinical studies as presented at the Third International Symposium on Immunotoxins. Leukemia 7: 341-348, 1993.
37. Tonevitsky A, Agapov I, Bushueva T, Toptygin A, Shamshiev A, Frankel AE, Debabov V. The effect of glycosylation on the structure, stability and biological activity of ricin toxin B-chain. Dokl Akad Nauk (Russia) 336:700-3, 1994
38. Tonevitsky A, Toptygin A, Agapov I, Pfueller U, Frankel AE.  Renatured ricin toxin B chain made in Escherichia coli is soluble, stable, and biologically active. Biochemistry and Mol Biol Intl, 32:1139-46, 1994
39. Sehnke P, Pedrosa L, Paul A, Frankel AE, Ferl R. Expression of active, processed ricin in transgenic tobacco. J Biol Chem 269:1-4, 1994
40. Frankel AE, Gulick H, Afrin L, Vesely J, Willingham M. Expression of ricin B chain in Spodoptera frugiperda. Bioch Jour 303:787-94, 1994.
41. Afrin L, Gulick H, Vesely J, Willingham M, Frankel AE. Expression of olioghistidine-tagged ricin B chain in Spodoptera frugiperda. Bioconj Chem 5:539-46, 1994
42. Tonevitsky A, Toptygin A, Agapov I, Rakhamanova V, Shamshier A, Alekseer I, Pfueller U, Frankel AE. Production of biologically active recombinant ricin B chain. Molekuliarnaia Biologia 29:398-406, 1995.
43. Brothers T, Robison J, Elliott B, Boggs J, Frankel AE, Willingham M. Upregulation of bFGF receptor expression after carotid bypass. J Surg Res 58: 28-32, 1995
44. Frankel AE, Tagge E, Chandler J, Burbage C, Hancock G, Vesely J, Willingham M. IL2-ricin fusion toxin is selectively cytotoxic in vitro to IL2 receptor bearing tumor cells. Bioconj Chem 6:666-72, 1995
45. Frankel AE, Tagge E, Willingham M. Clinical trials of targeted toxins.Sem Cancer Biol 6:307-317, 1995.
46. Tagge E, Chandler J, Tagge D, Burbage C, Hancock G, Vesely J, Willingham M, Frankel AE. Selective cytotoxicity of a genetically engineered IL2-ricin fusion toxin to tumor cells bearing the IL2 receptor. Surgical Forum 46: 672-675,1995.
47. Frankel AE, Tagge E, Chandler J, Burbage C, Hancock G, Vesely J, Willingham M. Characterization of single site ricin toxin B chain mutants. Bioconj Chem 7:30-7.1996.
48. Tagge E, Chandler J, Tang B, Hong W, Willingham M, Frankel AE.  Cytotoxicity of KDEL-terminated ricin toxins correlates with distribution of the KDEL receptor in the Golgi. J Histochem Cytochem 44:159-65, 1996.
49. Tagge E, Chandler J, Harris B, Czako M, Marton L, Willingham M, Burbage C, Afrin L, Frankel AE.  Preproricin expressed in Nicotiana tabacum cells in vitro is fully processed and biologically active.  Protein Expression and Purification, 8: 109-118, 1996.
50. Tagge E, Chandler J, Harris B, Czako M, Marton L, Willingham M, Burbage C, Afrin L, Frankel AE.  Preproricin expressed in Nicotiana tabacum cells in vitro is fully processed and biologically active.  Protein Expression and Purification, 8: 109-118, 1996.
51. Re G, Waters C, Poisson L, Willingham M, Sugamura K, Frankel AE.  Interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor expression and sensitivity to diphtheria fusion toxin DAB389IL-2 in cultured hematopoietic cells.Cancer Research 56:2590-5, 1996.
52. Frankel AE, Tagge E, Chandler J, Burbage C, Willingham M.  Double-site ricin B chain mutants retain galactose binding.  Protein Engineering 9:371-9, 1996.
53. Tagge EP, Tagge DU, Pitre BR, Chandler JC, Haddad G, Frankel AE, Willingham MC, Garvin AJ, Papas TS.  Molecular biology and the pediatric surgeon: An introduction to basic concepts and methods.  Semin Pediatr Surg 5, 139-148, 1996.
54. Frankel AE, Burbage C, Fu T, Tagge EP, Chandler JC, Willingham M.  Characterization of a ricin fusion toxin targeted to the interleukin-2 receptor.  Protein Engineering, 9:913-919, 1996.
55. Chandler JC, Tagge DU, Willingham MC, Frankel AE, Tagge EP.Genetic engineering of immunotoxins.  Semin Pediatr Surg 5: 206-211,1996.
56. Frankel AE, FitzGerald D, Siegall C, Press W.  Advances in Immunotoxin Biology and Therapy: A Summary of the Fourth International Symposium on Immunotoxins.Cancer Research 56:926-32, 1996.
57. Vallera DA, Burns LJ, Frankel AE, Sicheneder AR, Kersey JH.  Laboratory preparation of a deglycosylated ricin toxin A chain containing immunotoxin directed against a CD7 T lineage differentiation antigen for phase I human clinical studies involving T cell malignancies.  J Immunol Methods 197: 69-83, 1996
58. Day PJ, Ernst SR, Frankel AE, Monzingo AF, Pascal JM, Molina-Svinth MC, Robertus JD.  Structure and activity of an active site substitution of ricin A chain.  Biochemistry 35: 11098-11103, 1996
59. Frankel AE, Burbage C, Fu T, Tagge E, Chandler J, Willingham MC.  Ricin toxin contains three galactose-binding sites located in B chain subdomains 1%, 1β and 2γ.Biochemistry 35: 14747-14756, 1996
60. Fu T, Burbage C, Tagge E, Chandler J, Willingham M, Frankel AE.  Double lectin-site ricin B chain mutants expressed in insect cells have residual galactose binding: Evidence for more than two lectin sites on RTB.  Bioconj Chem 7: 651-658, 1996.
61. Frankel AE, Laver J, Willingham M, Burns L, Kersey J, Vallera DA. Therapy of T-cell lymphoma patients using an anti-CD7 monoclonal antibody-ricin A chain immunotoxin. Leukemia and Lymphoma 26: 287-298,1997.
62. Frankel AE, Fu T, Burbage C, Chandler J, Willingham M, Tagge E. IL2 fused to lectin deficient ricin is toxic to human leukemia cells expressing the IL2 receptor. Leukemia 11:22-30, 1997.
63. Frankel AE, Fu T, Burbage C, Tagge E, Harris B, Vesely J, Stahl P, Drickamer K,Willingham M. Lectin-deficient ricin toxin intoxicates cells bearing the D-mannose receptor. Carb Research 300: 251-258,1997.
64. Frankel AE, Hall, P, Burbage C, Vesely J, Willingham M, Bhalla K, Kreitman R. Modulation of the apoptotic response of human myeloid leukemia cells to a diphtheria toxin-granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF) fusion protein.Blood 90:3654-3661, 1997.
65. Tagge E, Harris B, Burbage C, Hall P, Vesely J, Willingham M, Frankel AE. Routing of green fluorescent protein-ricin to the Golgi correlates with cell sensitivity to toxins. Bioconj Chem 8:743-750,1997.
66. Frankel AE. Ed:Clinical applications of targeted toxins. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 234. Springer Verlag, New York, 1998.
67. Duvic M, Cather J, Maize J, Frankel AE.  DAB 389IL2 Diphtheria fusion toxin produces clinical responses in tumor stage cutaneous T Cell lymphoma.American Journal of Hematology 58:87-90, 1998.
68. Byeon MK, Frankel AE, Papas TS, Henderson KW, Schweinfest CW. Human DRA functions as a sulfate transporter in Sf9 insect cells. Protein Expression and Purification 12:67-74,1998.
69. Hall PD, Kreitman RJ, Willingham MC, Frankel AE. Toxicology and Pharmacokinetics of DT388-GMCSF, a fusion toxin consisting of a truncated diphtheria toxin (DT388) linked to human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF), in C57Bl/6 Mice.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 150:91-97, 1998.
70. Frankel AE, Hall PD, McLain C, Safa AR, Tagge EP, Kreitman RJ. Cell-specific modulation of drug resistance in acute myeloid leukemic blasts by targeted toxins. Bioconjugate Chemistry 9:490-496, 1998.
71. Burbage C, Tagge EP, Harris B, Hall P, Fu T, Willingham MC, Frankel AE. Ricin fusion toxin targeted to the human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor receptor is selectively toxic to actue myeloid leukemia cells.Leukemia Research, 21: 681-690, 1997.
72. Hogge DE, Willman CL, Kreitman RJ, Berger M, McLain C, Hall PD, Kopecky KJ, McLain C, Tagge EP, Frankel AE. Malignant progenitors from patients with acute myelogenous leukemia are sensitive to a diphtheria toxin-granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF) fusion protein.Blood  92:589-595, 1998.
73. Frankel AE, Lilly M, Kreitman RJ, Hogge D, Beran M, Freedman MH, Emanuel PD, McLain C, Hall P, Tagge EP, Berger M, Eaves C. Diphtheria toxin fused to granulocyte-macrophage colonyl-stimulating factor is toxic to blasts from patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. Blood 92: 4279-4286, 1998
74. Hall PD, Kreitman RJ, Willingham MC, Tagge EP, Frankel AE. Diphtheria toxin fused to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor prolongs the survival of scid mice bearing human acute myelogenous leukemia. Leukemia, 13: 629-633, 1999.
75. Kim CN, Bhalla K, Kreitman RJ, Hall P, Willingham MC, Tagge EP, Jia T, Frankel AE.  Diphtheria toxin fused to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and Ara-C exert synergistic toxicity against human AML HL-60 cells. Leukemia Research, 23:527-538, 1999.
76. Frankel AE, Ramage J, Latimer A, Feely T, Delatte S, Hall P, Tagge E, Kreitman R,Willingham M. High level synthesis and maximal purification of the recombinant diphtheria fusion toxin DTGM for phase I clinical trials. Protein Expression and Purification, 16:190-201,1999.
77. Hotchkiss CE, Hall PD, Cline JM, Willingham MC, Kreitman RJ, Gardin J, Latimer A,Ramage J, Feely T, Frankel AE. Toxicology and pharmacokinetics of DTGM, a fusion toxin consisting of a truncated diphtheria toxin (DT388) linked to human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), in cynomolgus monkeys.Tox Appl Pharm 158: 152-160, 1999.
78. Frankel AE, MuCubrey J, Miller MS, Delatte S, Ramage J, Kiser M, Kucera GL, Alexander RL, Beran M, Tagge EP, Kreitman RJ, Hogge D. Diphtheria toxin fused to human interleukin-3 is toxic to blasts from patients with myeloid leukemias. Leukemia, 14: 576-585, 2000.
79. Frankel AE, Kreitman RJ, Sausville EA. Targeted toxins. Clinical Cancer Research 6:326-334, 2000.
80. Frankel AE, Ramage J, Gannaway S, Kiser M, Alexander R, Kucera G, Miller MS. Characterization of diphtheria fusion toxins targeted to the interleukin-3 receptor.Protein Engineering 13, 575-581, 2000
81. Feuring-Buske M, Frankel AE, Gerhard B, Hogge D. Cytotoxicity of diphtheria toxin 388-granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (DT388-GMCSF) fusion protein for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) stem cells.Exp Hematol 28: 1390-1400, 2000
82. Alexander RL, Kucera GL, Klein B, Frankel AE. In vitro interleukin-3 binding to leukemia cells predicts cytotoxicity of a diphtheria toxin/IL3 fusion protein. Bioconj Chem 11. 564-568, 2000
83. Frankel, AE, Sievers EL, Scheinberg DA. Cell surface receptor-targeted therapy of acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer Biother & Radiopharm 15: 459-476, 2000
84. Lilly MB, Frankel AE, Salo J, Kraft AS. Distinct domains of the human GM-CSF receptor alpha subunit mediate activation of JAK/STAT signaling and differentiation. Blood 97: 1662-1670, 2001
85. Olsen E, Duvic M, Frankel AE, Kim Y, Martin A, Vonderheid E, Jegasothy B, Wood G, Gordon M, Heald P, Oseroff A, Pinter-Brown L, Bowen G, Kuzel T, Fivenson D, Foss F, Glode M, Molina A, Knobler E, Stewart S, Cooper K, Stevens S, Craig F, Reuben J, Bacha P, Nichols J. Pivotal phase III trial of two dose levels of DAB389IL2 (ONTAK) for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 19: 376-388, 2001
86. Hall PD, Virella G, Beckham W, Frankel AE. Adult AML patients treated with DTGM diphtheria fusion toxin do not have neutralizing antibodies before or after the first treatment course. Clin Immunol 100: 191-197, 2001
87. Frankel AE, Schuster MW, Jurcic J. Novel therapeutics for chemotherapy resistant acute myeloid leukemia. BioDrugs 15: 55-71, 2001.
88. Alexander RL, Ramage J, Kucera GL, Caligiuri MA, Frankel AE. High affinity interleukin-3 receptor expression on blasts from patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) correlates with cytotoxicity of a diphtheria toxin/IL-3 fusion protein. Leukemia Research 25: 875-881, 2001
89. Kiser M, McCubrey JA, Steelman LS, Shelton JG, Ramage J, Alexander RL, Kucera GL, Pettenati M, Willingham MC, Miller MS, Frankel AE. Oncogene-dependent engraftment of human myeloid leukemia cells in immunosuppressed mice. Leukemia 15: 814-818, 2001
90. Senchenkov A, Han TY, Frankel AE, Kottke TJ, Kaufmann SH, Cabot MC. Enhanced ceramide generation and induction of apoptosis in human leukemia cells exposed to DT388-GMCSF, a truncated diphtheria toxin fused to human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Blood 98: 1927-1934, 2001
91. Frankel  AE, Bauer MR, Hogge DE, Stuart RK. Immunotherapy of acute myeloid leukemia. Curr Pharm Biotech 2: 209-215, 2001
92. Frankel AE, Powell BL, Vallera DA, Neville DA. Chimeric fusion proteins-diphtheria toxin-based. Curr Opin Invest Drugs 2: 1294-1301, 2001
93. Frankel AE, Rossi P, Kuzel TM, Foss F. Diphtheria fusion protein therapy of chemoresistant malignancies. Current Cancer Drug Targets 2: 19-36, 2002.
94. Frankel AE, Bugge TH, Liu S, Vallera DA, Leppla SH. Peptide toxins directed at the matrix dissolution systems of cancer cells. Proteins and Peptide Letters 9: 1-14, 2002.
95. Frankel AE. Increased sophistication of immunotoxins. Clinical Cancer Research 8: 942-944, 2002
96. Feuring-Buske M, Frankel AE, Alexander RL, Gerhard B, Hogge DE. A diphtheria toxin-interleukin-3 fusion protein is cytotoxic to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) stem cells but spares normal stem cells. Cancer Research 62: 1730-1736, 2002
97. Frankel AE, Powell BL, Hall PD, Case LD, Kreitman RJ.Phase I trial of a novel diphtheria toxin/GM-CSF fusion protein (DT388GMCSF) for refractory or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Clinical Cancer Research 8: 1004-1013, 2002
98. Frankel AE. New Her2-directed therapies for breast cancer. Clinical Cancer Research 8: 1699-1701, 2002.
99. Frankel AE, Powell BL, Duesbery NS, Vande Woude GF, Leppla SH. Anthrax fusion protein therapy of cancer. Curr Protein Peptide Sci 3: 399-407, 2002
100. Thomas PB, Delatte SJ, Sutphin A, Frankel AE, Tagge EP. Effective targeted cytotoxicity of neuroblastoma cells. J Pediatric Surgery 37: 539-544, 2002.
101. Frankel AE, Powell BL, Lilly MB. Diphtheria toxin conjugate therapy of cancer. In Cancer Chemotherapy and Biological Response Modifiers Annual 20, eds. G. Giaccone, R. Schilsky, P. Sondel, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 301-314, 2002.
102. Frankel AE. Receptor upregulation enhances cell surface receptor targeted therapies. Leukemia Research 26: 1069-1071, 2002.
103. Frankel AE, Beran M, Hogge DE, Powell BL, Thorburn A, Chen YQ, Vallera DA. Malignant progenitors from patients with CD87 positive acute myelogenous leukemia are sensitive to a diphtheria toxin-urokinase fusion protein. Exp Hematol 30: 1316-1323, 2002.
104. Roboz GJ, Knovich MA, Bayer RL, Schuster MW, Seiter K, Powell BL, Woodruff RD, Silver RT, Frankel AE, Feldman EJ. Efficacy and safety of gemtuzumab ozogamicin in patients with poor-prognosis acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia & Lymphoma 43: 1951-1955, 2002
105. Black JH, McCubrey JA, Willingham MC, Ramage J, Hogge DE, Frankel AE. Diphtheria toxin-interleukin 3 fusion protein (DT388IL3) prolongs disease-free survival of leukemic immunocompromised mice. Leukemia 17: 155-159, 2003.
106. Cohen KA, Bissonette R, Puri RK, Frankel AE. DAB389EGF fusion protein therapy of refractory glioblastoma mulitforme. Curr Pharm Biotech 4: 39-49, 2003.
107. Thorburn J, Frankel AE, Thorburn A.Apoptosis  by leukemia cell-targeted diphtheria toxin occurs via receptor-independent activation of Fas associated death domain protein. Clinical Cancer Research 9: 861-865, 2003.
108. Frankel AE, Fleming DR, Powell BL, Gartenhaus R. DAB389IL2 (ONTAK7) fusion protein therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Exp Opin Biol Therapy 3: 179-186, 2003
109. Liu TF, Cohen KA, Ramage JG, Willingham MC, Thorburn AM, Frankel AE. A diphtheria toxin-epidermal growth factor fusion protein is cytotoxic to human glioblastoma multiforme cells. Cancer Research 63: 1834-1837, 2003
110. Frankel AE, Neville DM, Bugge TA, Kreitman RJ, Leppla SH. Immunotoxin therapy of hematologic malignancies. Sem Oncol 30: 545-557, 2003.
111. Liu TF, Cohen KA, Willingham MC, Tatter SB, Puri RK, Frankel AE. Combination fusion protein therapy of refractory brain tumors: demonstration of efficacy in cell culture. J Neuro-Oncology 65: 77-85, 2003
112. Liu TF, Tatter SB, Willingham MC, Yang M, Hu JJ, Frankel AE. Growth factor receptor expression varies among high grade gliomas and normal brain: epidermal growth factor receptor has excellent properties for interstitial fusion protein therapy. Mol Cancer Ther 2: 783-787, 2003
113. Mishra G, Liu TF, Frankel AE. Recombinant toxin DAB(389)EGF is cytotoxic to human pancreatic cancer cells. Exp Opin Biol Ther 3: 1173-1180, 2003.
114. Riedlinger G, Kridel S, Al-Housseini AM, Brow JM, Bugge TH, Leppla SH, Duesbery N, Vande Woude G, Frankel AE. Metastatic melanoma and matrix metalloproteinases. Drugs of the Future 28 (9): 1-8, 2003.
115. Frankel AE, Koo HM, Leppla SH, Duesbery NS, Vande Woude GF. Novel protein targeted therapy of metastatic melanoma. Current Pharmaceutical Design 9: 2060-2066, 2003
116. Liu TF, Willingham MC, Tatter SB, Cohen KA, Lowe AC, Thorburn A, Frankel AE. Diphtheria toxin-epidermal growth factor fusion protein and Pseudomonas exotoxin-interleukin 13 fusion protein exert synergistic toxicity against human glioblastoma multiforme cells. Bioconj Chem 14: 1107-1114, 2003.
117. Frankel AE. Reducing the immune response to immunotoxin. Clinical Cancer Res 10: 13-15, 2004.
118. Thorburn A, Thorburn J, Frankel AE. Induction of apoptosis by tumor cell-targeted toxins. Apoptosis 9: 19-25, 2004.
119. Jedema I, Barge RMY, Frankel AE, Willemze R, Falkenburg JHF. Acute myeloid leukemia cells in Go phase of the cell cycle which are unresponsive to conventional chemotherapy are sensitive to treatment with GM-CSF/diphtheria toxin fusion proteins. Exp Hematol 32: 188-194, 2004
120. Liu TF, Urieto JO, Moore JE, Miller MS, Lowe AC, Thorburn A, Frankel AE. Diphtheria toxin fused to variant interleukin-3 provides enhanced binding to the interleukin-3 receptor and more potent leukemia cell cytotoxicity. Exp Hematol 32: 277-281, 2004.
121. Cohen KA, Liu TF, Cline JM, Wagner JD, Hall PD, Frankel AE. Toxicology and pharmacokinetics of DT388IL3, a fusion toxin consisting of a truncated diphtheria toxin (DT388) linked to human interleukin 3 (IL3), in cynomolgus monkeys. Leukemia & Lymphoma 45: 1647-1656, 2004.
122. Frankel AE, Gill PS. VEGF and myeloid leukemias. Leukemia Research 28: 675-677, 2004
123. Hogge DE, Feuring-Buske M, Gerhard B, Frankel AE. The efficacy of diphtheria-growth factor fusion proteins is enhanced by co-administration of cytosine arabinoside in an immunodeficient mouse model of human acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia Research 28: 1221-1226, 2004
124. Abi-Habib RJ, Liu S, Bugge TH, Leppla SH, Frankel AE. A urokinase activated-recombinant diphtheria toxin targeting the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor is selectively cytotoxic to human acute myeloid leukemia blasts. Blood 104: 2143-2148, 2004.
125. Westcott MM, Abi-Habib RJ, Cohen KA, Willingham MC, Liu S, Bugge TH, Leppla SH, Frankel, AE. Diphtheria toxin-murine GMCSF-induced hepatotoxicity is mediated by Kupffer cells. Mol Cancer Ther 3: 1681-1689, 2004
126. Liu TF, Cohen KA, Willingham MC, Cai J, Thorburn A, Frankel AE. Interstitial diphtheria toxin-epidermal growth factor fusion protein therapy produces regressions of subcutaneous human glioblastoma multiforme tumors in athymic nude mice. Clinical Cancer Research 11: 329-334, 2005
127. Cohen KA, Liu TF, Cline JM, Wagner JD, Hall PD, Frankel, AE. Safety evaluation of DT388IL3, a diphtheria toxin-interleukin 3 fusion protein, in the cynomolgus monkey. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2005; 54: 799-806.
128. Frankel AE. New anti-T cell immunotoxins for the clinic. Leukemia Research 29: 249-251, 2005
129. Frankel AE, Kreitman RJ. CLL immunotoxins. Leukemia Research 2005; 29: 985-986
130. Testa U, Riccioni R, Biffoni M, Diverio D, Lo-Coco F, Foa R, Peschle C, Frankel AE. Diphtheria toxin fused to variant human interleukin-3 induces cytotoxicity of blasts from patients with acute myeloid leukemia according to the level of interleukin-3 receptor expression. Blood 106: 2527-2529, 2005.
131. Abi-Habib RJ, Urieto JO, Liu S, Leppla SH, Duesbery NS, Frankel AE. BRAF status and MEK1/2 activity indicate sensitivity of melanoma cells to anthrax lethal toxin. Mol Cancer Ther 4: 1303-1310, 2005.
132. Hogge DE, Yalcintepe L, Wong SH, Gerhard, B, Frankel AE. Variant diphtheria toxin-interleukin-3 fusion proteins with increased receptor affinity have enhanced cytotoxicity against acute myeloid leukemia progenitors. Clinical Cancer Res 12: 1284-1291, 2006.
133. Frankel AE, Surendranathan A, Black JH, White A, Cripe LD. Phase II clinical studies of denileukin diftitox diphtheria toxin fusion protein in patients with previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer 106: 2158-2164, 2006
134. Hall PD, Sinha D, Frankel AE. Fresh frozen plasma and platelet concentrates may increase plasma anti-diphtheria toxin IgG concentrations: implications for diphtheria fusion protein therapy. Cancer Immunol Immunotherapy 55: 928-932, 2006.
135. Thorburn A, Frankel AE. Apoptosis and anthracycline cardiotoxicity. Mol Cancer Ther 5: 197-199, 2006
136. Abi-Habib RJ, Singh R, Liu S, Bugge TH, Leppla SH, Frankel AE. A urokinase-activated recombinant anthrax toxin is selectively cytotoxic to many human tumor cell types. Mol Cancer Ther, 5:2556-2562, 2006.
137. Yalcintepe L, Frankel AE, Hogge DE. Expression of interleukin-3 receptor subunits on defined populations of acute myeloid leukemia blasts predicts the cytotoxicity of diphtheria toxin interleukin-3 fusion protein against malignant progenitors which engraft in immunodeficient mice. Blood 2006; 108:3530-3537.
138. Abi-Habib RJ, Singh R, Leppla SH, Young JJ, Mings J, Greene JF, Berghuis B, Duesbery NS, Frankel AE. Systemic anthrax lethal toxin therapy produces regressions of subcutaneous human melanoma tumors in athymic nude mice. Clin Cancer Res, 12: 7437-7443, 2006
139. Su Y, Ortiz J, Liu S, Bugge TH, Singh R, Leppla SH, Frankel AE. Systemic urokinase-activated anthrax toxin therapy produces regressions of subcutaneous human non-small cell lung tumor in athymic nude mice. Cancer Research 2007; 67: 3329-3336.
140. Watson LE, Mock J, Lal H, Lu G, Bourdeau RW, Tang WJ, Leppla SH, Dostal DE, Frankel AE. Lethal and edema toxins of anthrax induce distinct hemodynamic dysfunction. Frontiers in Biosciences 12: 4670-4675, 2007
141. Frankel AE, Gillet D. Hormono-et immunotoxines pour detruire les cellules cancereuses. Biofutur 276 : 31-34, 2007
142. Suh DY, Frankel AE. Advances in AML immunotherapy: the case for T-bodies. Leuk Res, 31:127-128, 2007
143. Watson LE, Kuo S, Katki K, Dang T, Park SK, Dostal DE, Tang WJ, Leppla SH, Frankel AE. Anthrax toxins induce shock in rats by depressed cardiac ventricular function and reduced preload. PLosONE 2: e466, 2007
144. Singh R, Browning JL, Abi-Habib R, Wong K, Williams SA, Merchant R, Denmeade SR, Buckley JT, Frankel AE. Recombinant prostate-specific antigen proaerolysin shows selective protease sensitivity and cell cytotoxicity. Anti-Cancer Drugs 18: 809-816, 2007
145. Depeille PE, Young JJ, Boguslawski EA, Berghuis B, Kort E, Resau JH, Frankel AE, Duesbery NS. Anthrax lethal toxin inhibits growth of and VEGF release from endothelial cells expressing the HHV8 vGPCR. Clin Cancer Res 13: 5926-5934, 2007
146. Su Y, Vanderlaag K, Ireland C, Ortiz J, Grage H, Safe S, Frankel AE. 1,1-Bis(3’-indolyl)-1-(p-biphenyl)methane inhibits basal-like breast cancer growth in athymic nude mice. Breast Cancer Research 9: R56, 2007
147. Vanderlaag K, Su Y, Frankel AE, Grage H, Smith R, Khan S, Safe S. 1,1-Bis (3’-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes inhibit proliferation of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells by activation of multiple pathways. Breast Cancer Res Treat 109: 273-283, 2008
148. Kuo SR, Bour SH, Andreas EA, Park SK, Jackson C, Duesbery N, Leppla SH, Tang WJ, Frankel AE.  Anthrax toxin-induced shock in rats is associated with pulmonary edema and hemorrhage.  Microbial Pathog 44: 467-472, 2008
149. Horita H, Frankel AE, Thorburn A. Acute myeloid leukemia-targeted toxins kill tumor cells by cell type-specific mechanisms and synergize with TRAIL to allow manipulation of the extent and mechanism of tumor cell death. Leukemia 22: 652-655, 2008.
150. Liu S, Wang H, Currie BM, Molinolo A, Leung HJ, Moayeri M, Basile JR, Alfano RW, Frankel AE, Bugge TH, Leppla SH. Potent and broad anti-tumor activity of the engineered matrix metalloproteinase-activated anthrax lethal toxin that targets tumor vasculature. J Biol Chem 283: 529-540, 2008
151. Woo JH, Liu JS, Kang SH, Singh R, Park SK, Su Y, Ortiz J, Neville DM, Willingham MC, Frankel AE. GMP production and characterization of the bivalent anti-human T cell immunotoxin, A-dmDT390-bisFv(UCHT1) for phase I/II clinical trials.Protein Exp Purif 58: 1-11, 2008
152. Rouleau C, Menon K, Boutin P, Guyre C, Yoshida H, Kataoka S, Perricone M, Shankara S, Frankel AE, Duesbery NS, Vande Woude G, Biermann HP, Teicher BA. Systemic administration of lethal toxin achieves growth delay of human melanoma and neuroblastoma xenografts: assessment of receptor contribution. Int J Oncol 32: 739-748, 2008
153. Woo JH, Bour SH, Dang T, Lee YJ, Park SK, Andreas E, Kang SH, Liu JS, Neville DM, Frankel AE. Preclinical studies in rat and squirrel monkeys for safety evaluation of the bivalent anti-human T-cell immunotoxin, A-dmDT390-bisFv(UCHT1). Cancer Immunol Immunother 57: 1225-1239, 2008.
154. Alfano RW, Leppla SH,Liu S, Bugge TH, Duesbery NS, Frankel AE.Potent inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by the matrix metalloproteinase-activated anthrax lethal toxin-implications for broad anti-tumor efficacy. Cell Cycle 7: 1-5, 2008.
155. Ding Y, Boguslawski EA, Berghuis BD, Young JJ, Zhang Z, Hardy K, Furge K, Kort E, Frankel AE, Hay R, Resau JH, Duesbery NS. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase signaling promotes growth and vascularization of fibrosarcoma. Mol Cancer Ther 7: 648-658, 2008.
156. Frankel AE, Liu JS, Rizzieri DA, Hogge DE. Phase I clinical study of diphtheria toxin-interleukin 3 fusion protein in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplasia.  Leukemia & Lymphoma 49: 543-553, 2008
157. Awasthi S, Singhal SS, Awasthi YC, Martin B, Woo JH, Cunningham CC, Frankel AE.RLIP76 and cancer. Clin Cancer Res 14: 4372-4377, 2008
158. Alfano RW, Leppla SH, Liu SH, Bugge TH, Herlyn M, Smalley KS, Duesbery NS, Houghton A, Frankel AE. Cytotoxicity of the engineered matrix metalloproteinase-activated anthrax lethal toxin is dependent on gelatinase expression and B-Raf status in human melanoma cells. Mol Cancer Ther 7: 1218-1226, 2008
159. Socoteanu MP, Mott F, Alpini G, Frankel AE. c-Met targeted therapy of cholangiocarcinoma. World J Gastroenterol 14: 2990-2994, 2008
160. Hall PD, Beagle KL, Garrett-Mayer E, Frankel AE. Reducing anti-DT IgG concentrations to improve the efficacy of a diphtheria fusion protein.Anti-Cancer Drugs 19: 1007-1011, 2008
161. Horita H, Frankel AE, Thorburn A. Acute myeloid leukemia-targeted toxin activates both apoptotic and necroptotic death mechanisms. PLosONE 3: e3909, 2008
162. Thorburn J, Horita H, Redzic J, Hansen K, Frankel AE, Thorburn A. Autophagy regulates selective HMGB1 release in tumor cells that are destined to die. Cell Death and Differentiation 16: 175-183, 2009.
163. Frankel AE, Zuckero SL, Mankin AA, Grable M, Mitchell K, Lee J, Neville DM, Woo JH.Anti-CD3 recombinant diphtheria immunotoxin therapy of cutaneous T cell lymphoma..Curr Drug Targets 10: 104-109, 2009
164. Thorburn J, Frankel AE, Thorburn A. Regulation of HMGB1 release by autophagy.Autophagy 5: 247-249, 2009
165. Alfano RW, Leppla SH, Liu S, Bugge TH, Meininger CJ, Lairmore TC, Mulne AF, Davis SH, Duesbery NS, Frankel AE. Matrix metalloproteinase-activated anthrax lethal toxin inhibits endothelial invasion and neovasculature formation during in vitro morphogenesis. Mol Cancer Res 7: 452-461, 2009
166. Frankel AE, Kuo SR, Dostal D, Watson L, Duesbery NS, Cheng CP, Cheng HJ, Leppla SH. Pathophysiology of anthrax. Frontiers in Bioscience 14: 4516-4524, 2009
167. Frankel AE, Woo JH. Bispecific immunotoxins. Leuk Res 33:  1173-1174, 2009.
168. Horita H, Thorburn J, Frankel AE, Thorburn A. EGFR-targeted toxin stimulates TRAIL killing of glioblastoma cells by depleting anti-apoptotic proteins. J Neurooncol, 2009 Nov;95(2):175-84
169. Alfano RW, Leppla SH, Liu S, Bugge TH, Ortiz JM, Lairmore TC, Duesbery NS, Mitchell IC, Nwariaku F, Frankel AE. Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by the matrix metalloproteinase-activated anthrax lethal toxin in an orthotopic model of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Mol Cancer Ther, 2010 Jan;9(1):190-201
170. Kim HP, Frankel AE, Hogge DE. A diphtheria toxin interleukin-3 fusion protein synergizes with tyrosine kinase inhibitors in killing leukemic progenitors from BCR/ABL positive acute leukemia. Leuk Res, 2010 Aug;34(8):1035-42
171. Vallera DA, Oh S, Taras EP, Chen H, Shu Y, Frankel AE. Bioengineering a unique “deimmunized” bispecific targeted toxin that simultaneously recognizes human CD22 and CD19 receptors in a mouse model of B cell metastases. Mol Cancer Ther, 2010 Jun;9(6):1872-83
172. Agrawal V, Frankel AE.  14G2a anti-GD2 cross reactivity with the  CD166 antigen. J Immuno.  Nov/Dec 2010, 33(9):1014-1015.
173. R. Kandadi, Yinan Hua, Heng Ma, Qun Li, Shu-ru Kuo, Arthur E. Frankel, Jun Ren.  Anthrax Lethal Toxin Suppresses Murine Cardiomyocyte Contractile Function and Intracellular Ca2+ Handling via a NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Mechanism. PLoS ONE. 2010; 5(10) e13335.
174. Woo JH, Lee YJ, Neville DM, Frankel AE.  Pharmacology of anti-CD3 immunotoxin in CD3 positive T-cell lymphoma trials.  Methods Mol Biol. 2010; 651:157-75
175. Woo JH, Frankel A, Neville DM.  Cytotoxic Therapy with Diptheria toxin fusion proteins.  Drugs of the Future. 2010, 35(10):823-831
176. Yang MY, Chaudhary A, Seaman S, Dunty J, Stevens J, Elzarrad MK, Frankel AE, St Croix B. The cell surface structure of tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) is regulated by the actin cytoskeleton. Biochim Biophys Acta 2011, 1813: 39-49
177. vanderlaag K, Su Y, Frankel AE, Burghardt RC, Barhoumi R, Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Safe S. 1,1-bis(3’-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes induce autophagic cell death in estrogen receptor negative breast cancer. BMC Cancer 2010; 10: 669
178. Kuo SR, Alfano RW, Frankel AE, Liu JS. Antibody internalization after cell surface antigen binding is critical for immunotoxin development. Bioconj Chem 2009; 20: 1975-1982.
179. Su Y, Li SY, Ghosh S, Ortiz J, Hogge DE, Frankel AE. Characterization of variant diphtheria toxin-interleukin-3 fusion protein, DTIL3K116W, for phase I clinical trials. Biologicals 2010; 38: 144-149.
180. Liu S, Bugge TH, Frankel AE, Leppla SH. Dissecting the urokinase activation pathway using urokinase-activated anthrax toxin. Methods Mol Biol 2009; 539: 175-190.
181. Schimmer A, Herr W, Hänel M, Borthakur G, Frankel AE, Horst HA, Martin S, Kassis J, Desjardins P, Seiter K, Fiedler W, Noppeney R, Giagounidis A, Jacob C, Jolivet J, Tallman M, Koschmieder S. The addition of AEG35156 XIAP antisense oligonucleotide to reinduction chemotherapy does not improve remission rates in patients with primary refractory AML in a randomized phase II study. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2011; 11(5): 433-438
182. Agrawal V, Woo JH, Mauldin JP, Jo C, Stone EM, Georgiou G, Frankel AE. Cytotoxicity of human recombinant arginase I [Co]-PEG5000 in the presence of supplemental l-citrulline is dependent on decreased argininosuccinate synthetase expression in human cells. Anti-Cancer Drugs. 2012; 23(1): 51-64.
183. Mauldin JP, Zeinali I, Kleypas K, Woo JH, Blackwood RS, Jo C, Stone EM, Georgiou G, Frankel AE. Recombinant human arginase toxicity in mice is reduced by citrulline supplementation. Trans Onc. 2012; 5(1):26-31
184. Frankel AE, Carter C, Kuo SR, Woo JH, Mauldin JP, Liu JS. TEM8 targeted cancer therapy. Anti Cancer Agents Med Chem. 2011; 11: 983-992.
185. Agrawal V, Alpini S EJ, Stone EM, Frenkel EP, Frankel AE. Targeting methionine auxotrophy in cancer: Discovery & Exploration. Expert Opin Bio Ther. 2012; 12(1): 53-61.
186. Kuo SR, Tahir SA, Park S, Thompson TC, Coffield S, Frankel AE, Liu JS. Anti-Caveolin-1 antibodies as anti-prostate cancer therapeutics. Hybridoma. 2012; 31(2):77-86
187. Yoon JK, Frankel AE, Feun LG, Ekmekcioglu S, Kim KB. Arginine deprivation therapy for malignant melanoma. Clin Pharmacol: Advances and Applications 2013; 5: 11-19.
188. Yang X, Kessler E, Su LJ, Thorburn A, Frankel AE, Li Y, LaRosa FG, Shen J, Li CY, Varella-Garcia M, Glode LM, Flaig TW. Diphtheria toxin-epidermal growth factor fusion protein DAB389EGF for the treatment of bladder cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2013; 19: 148-157.
189. Kandadi MR, Yu X, Frankel AE, Ren J. Cardiac-specific catalase overexpression rescues anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction: role of oxidative stress and autophagy. BMC Med 2012; 10: 134.
190. Agrawal V, Woo JH, Borthakur G, Kantarjian H, Frankel AE. Red blood cell-encapsulated L-asparaginase: potential therapy of patients with asparagine synthetase deficient acute myeloid leukemia. Protein Pept Lett 13; 20(4): 392-402.
191. Kandadi MR, Frankel AE, Ren J. Toll-like receptor 4 knockout protects against anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction: role of autophagy. Br J Pharmacol 2012; 167: 612-626.
192. Kassab E, Darwish M, Timsah Z, Liu S, Leppla SH, Frankel AE, Abi-Habib RJ. Cytotoxicity of anthrax lethal toxin to human acute myeloid leukemia cells is nonapoptotic and dependent on extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activity. 2013; 6(1):25-32.
193. Tanios R, Bekdash A, Kassab E, Stone E, Georgiou G, Frankel AE, Abi-Habib RJ. Human recombinant arginase I(Co)-PEG5000 [HuArgI(Co)-PEG5000]-induced arginine depletion is selectively cytotoxic to human acute myeloid leukemia cells. Leuk Res 37(11): 1565-1571.
194. Frankel AE Special issue of clinical pharmacology: advances and applications in new protein therapeutics modulating tumor immunity. Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Nov 26;5(Suppl 1):1-3.
195. Testa U, Pelosi E, Frankel A. CD 123 is a membrane biomarker and a therapeutic target in hematologic malignancies. Biomark Res. 2014;2(1):4.
196. Frankel AE, Woo JH, Ahn C, Pemmaraju N, Medeiros BC, Carraway HE, Frankfurt O, Forman SJ, Yang XA, Konopleva M, Garnache-Ottou F, Angelot-Delettre F, Brooks C, Szarek M, Rowinsky E Activity of SL-401, a targeted therapy directed to interleukin-3 receptor, in blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm patients..Blood. 2014 Jul 17;124(3):385-92.
197. Frolova O, Benito J, Brooks C, Wang RY, Korchin B, Rowinsky EK, Cortes J, Kantarjian H, Andreeff M, Frankel AE, Konopleva M.SL-401 and SL-501, targeted therapeutics directed at the interleukin-3 receptor, inhibit the growth of leukaemic cells and stem cells in advanced phase chronic myeloid leukaemia. Br J Haematol. 2014 Sep;166(6):862-74.
198. Agrawal V, Woo JH, Mauldin JP, Stone EM, Meininger CJ, Jo C, Kleypas K, Frenkel EP, Frankel AE.Melanoma In-vivo evaluation of human recombinant Co-arginase against A375 melanoma xenografts. Melanoma Res. 2014; 24(6): 556-567.  
199. Angelot-Delettre F, Roggy A, Frankel AE, Lamarthee B, Seilles E, Biichle S, Royer B, Deconinck E, Rowinsky EK, Brooks C, Bardet V, Benet B, Bennani H, Benseddik Z, Debliquis A, Lusina D, Roussel M, Solly F, Ticchioni M, Saas P, Garnache-Ottou F. In vivo and in vitro sensitivity of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm to SL-401, an interleukin-3 receptor targeted biologic agent. Haematologica. 2015; 100(2): 223-230.
200. Rakheja D, Fuda F, Vandergriff T, Boriack R, Medeiros BC, Frankel AE, Chen W. Increased plasma d-2-hydroxyglutarate in isocitrate dehydrogenase 2-mutated blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Hum Pathol. 2015; 46(2): 322-326.
201. Oula Khoury, Noura Ghazale, Everett Stone, Mirvat El-Sibai, Arthur E. Frankel and Ralph J. Abi-Habib. Human Recombinant Arginase I (Co)-PEG5000 [HuArgI (Co)-PEG5000]-Induced Arginine Depletion is Selectively Cytotoxic to Human Glioblastoma Cells. J Neurooncol. 2015 Mar; 122(1):75-85.
202. Veronika Bachanova, Arthur E. Frankel, Qing Cao, Dixie Lewis, Bartosz Grzywacz, Michael R. Verneris, Celalettin Ustun, Aleksandr Lazaryan, Brian McClune, Erica D. Warlick, Hagop Kantarjian, Daniel J. Weisdorf, Jeffrey S. Miller, Daniel A. Vallera   Phase 1 study of a bispecific ligand-directed toxin targeting CD22 and CD19 (DT2219) for refractory B-cell malignancies Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(6):1267-72.
203. Frankel AE, Woo JH, Ahn C, Foss FM, Duvic M, Neville PH, Neville DM. Resimmune-an antiCD3ε recombinant immunotoxin induces durable remissions in cutaneous Tcell lymphoma patients. Haematolgica 2015; 100(6): 794-800.
204. Bekdash A, Darwish M, Timsah Z, Kassab E, Ghanem H, Najjar V, Ghosn M, Nasser S, El-Hajj H, Bazerbachi A, Liu SH, Leppla SH, Frankel AE, and Abi-Habib RJ. Phospho-MEK1/2 and uPAR Expression Determine Sensitivity of AML Blasts to a Urokinase-Activated Anthrax Lethal Toxin (PrAgU2/LF). Translational Oncology 2015; 8(5): 347-357.
205. Burrage LC, Sun Q, Elsea SH, Jiang MM, Nagaqmani SC, Frankel AE, Stone E, Alters SE, Johnson DE, Rowlinson SW, Georgiou G, members of the urea cycle disorders consortium, Lee BH. Human Recombinant Arginase Enzyme Reduces Plasma Arginine in Mouse Models of Arginase Deficiency. Human Mol. Genet 2015; 24(22): 6417-6427.
206. Bekdash A, Darwish M, Timsah Z, Kassab E, Ghanem H, Najjar V, Ghosn M, Nasser S, El-Hajj H, Bazerbachi A, Liu S, Leppla SH, Frankel AE, Abi-Habib RJ. Transl Oncol. 2015; 8:347-57.
207. Frankel AE, Liu X, Minna JD. Developing EZH2 Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer.  Cancer Discov. 2016 Sep; 6(9): 949-52.
208. Eskiocak U, Ramesh V, Gill JG, Zhao Z, Yuan SW, Wang M, Vandergriff T, Shackleton M, Quintana E, Johnson TM, DeBerardinis RJ, Morrison SJ. Synergistic effects of ion transporter and MAP kinase pathway inhibitors in melanoma. Nat Commun. 2016 Aug 22; 7: 12336.
209. Gehlbach D, Koduru P, John G, Fuda F, Frankel AE, Chen W. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with t(11;19)(q23;p13.3);KMT2A(MLL) rearranged: a diagnostic challenge. Br J Haematol 2016; 176 (1): 8.  
210. Thorburn J, Staskiewicz L, Goodall ML, Dimberg L, Frankel AE, Ford HL, Thorburn A. Non cell-autonomous effects of autophagy inhibition in tumor cells promote growth of drug-resistant cells. Mol Pharm 2017; 91 (1): 58-64.
211. Frankel AE, Keith T.  Flaherty, George J. Weiner, Robert Chen, Nilofer S. Azad, Michael J. Pishvaian, John A. Thompson, Matthew H. Taylor, Daruka Mahadevan, A. Craig Lockhart, Ulka N. Vaishampayan, Jordan D. Berlin, David C. Smith, John Sarantopoulos, Matthew Riese, Mansoor N. Saleh, Chul Ahn, and Eugene P. Academic Cancer Center Phase 1 Program Development. Oncologist 2017; 22 (4): 369-374.
212. Frankel AE, Frenkel EP. Melanoma Metamorphoses: Advances in Biology and Therapy. J Cancer Science and Therapy 2017; 9: 1.
213. Frankel AE, Eskiocak U, Gill JG, Yuan S, Ramesh V, Froehlich TW, Ahn C, Morrison SJ. Digoxin plus trametinib therapy achieves disease control in BRAF wild type melanoma patients. Neoplasia 2017; 19 (4): 255-260.
214. Lou M, Wang Z, Wang H, Cai H, Lu Z, Li Y, Du M, Huang G, Wang C, Chen X, Parembka M, Lea J, Frankel AE, Fu YX, Chen ZJ, Gao JM. A STING-activating nanovaccine for cancer immunotherapy. Nature Nanotechnology 2017; Epub, April 24.
215. Stein EM, DiNardo CD, Pollyea DA, Fathi AT, Roboz GJ, Altman JK, Stone RM, DeAngelo DJ, Levine, Flinn IW, Kantarjian HM, Collins R, Patel MR, Frankel AE, Stein A, Sekeres MA, Swords RT, Medeiros BC, Willekens C, Vyas P, Tosolini A, Xu Q, Knight RD, Yen KE, Agresta S, de Botton S, Tallman MS. Enasidenib in mutant-IDH2 relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia. Blood 2017; Epub May 19. 
216. Frankel AE, Coughlin LA, Kim, J, Froehlich TJ, Xie Y, Frenkel EP, Koh AY. Metagenomic shotgun sequencing and unbiased metabolomic profiling identify specific human gut microbiota and metabolites associated with immune checkpoint therapy efficacy in melanoma patients. Neoplasia 2017; 19 (10): 848-855.

Reviews, Chapters, Monographs and Editorials
1. Fischinger P, Frankel AE. Species-specific actions of vertebrate oncornaviruses:  Origins, interactions and oncogenesis.  In: Neoplasms: Comparative pathology of growth in animals, plants, and man. Ed: H. Kaiser. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 407-22, 1981.
2. Ledbetter, J, Frankel AE, Herzenberg L. Human Leu T-cell differentiation antigens: Quantitative expression on normal lymphoid cells and cell lines.  In: Monoclonal Antibodies and T-cell Hybridomas. Ed: G. Hammerling and J. Kearney.Elsevier/North-Holland, Amersterdam, pp 16-22, 1981.
3. Ledbetter, J, Frankel AE, Herzenberg L. Human Leu T-cell differentiation antigens: Quantitative expression on normal lymphoid cells and cell lines.  In: Monoclonal Antibodies and T-cell Hybridomas. Ed: G. Hammerling and J. Kearney.Elsevier/North-Holland, Amersterdam, pp 16-22, 1981.
4. Frankel AE, Ring D, Bjorn M, Bloch W, Laird W, Chong K, Hwang K, Winkelhake J. Breast cancer immunotoxins. In: Monoclonal antibodies and breast cancer.  Ed: R Ceriani, Martinus Nihjoff Publishing, Boston, pp 269-92, 1985.
5. Frankel AE, Bjorn M, Winkelhake J. Antibody targeting of toxin polypeptides.  In: Protein Engineering. Eds.: M. Inouye and R. Sarma . Academic Press, Orlando, pp 351-63, 1986
6. Frankel AE, Bjorn M, Winkelhake J. Antibody targeting of toxin polypeptides.  In: Protein Engineering. Eds.: M. Inouye and R. Sarma . Academic Press, Orlando, pp 351-63, 1986
7. Frankel AE. Antibody toxins hybrids: A clinical review of their use. J Biol Resp Mod 4:437-46, 1985.
8. Linsley P, Ochs V, Laska S, Horn D, Ring D, Frankel AE, Brown J. Elevated levels of high molecular weight antigen detected by antibody W1 in sera from breast cancer patients.  Cancer Research 46:5444-50, 1986.
9. Frankel AE, Miller R. Monoclonal antibodies in cancer treatment. In: Fundamentals of Cancer Chemotherapy.  Eds: K. Hellman and S. Carter. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 488-98, 1986
10. Frankel AE, Welsh P, Withers D, Schlossman D. Immunotoxin preparation and testing in vitro.  In:  Antibody-Mediated Delivery Systems.  Ed:  J. Rodwell.  Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 225-44, 1988.
11. Robertus J, Frankel AE.  Immunotoxins.  In:  Encyclopedia of Human Biology, Volume 4.  Ed.  R. Dulbecco.Academic Press, San Diego, pp 415-22, 1991.
12. LeMaistre CF, Rosen S, Frankel AE, Kornfeld S, Saria E, Meneghetti C, Drajesk J, Fishwild D, Scannon P, Byers V. Phase I trial of H65-RTA immunoconjugate in patientswith cutaneous T - cell lymphoma. Blood 78: 1173-1182, 1991.
13. Bast RC, Zalutsky MR, Frankel AE. Monoclonal serotherapy.  In:  Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine.  Ed: Bast RC, Croce CM, Hait WN, Hong WK, Kufe DW, Piccart-Gebhart M, Pollock RE, Weichselbaum RR, Wang H, Holland JF. Wiley Blackwell, 2017.
14. Kim Y, Mlsna D, Monzingo A, Ready M, Frankel AE, Robertus J. Structure of a ricin mutant showing rescue of activity by a noncatalytic residue. Biochemistry 321:3294-6, 1992.
15. Sievers EL, Frankel AE. Treatment of acute leukemia with monoclonal antibodies, immunotoxins, and immunoconjugates. In Leukemia. eds. E.S. Henderson, T.A. Lister, Mel F. Greaves, Saunders, 7th Edition, Philadelphia, pp. 441-448, 2002.
16. Hall PD, Razzouk  BI, Willoughby TE, McLean T, Frankel AE. The majority of children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia have detectable anti-DT388GMCSF IgG concentrations but at concentrations that should not preclude in vivo activity. J Ped Hematology Oncology 24: 521-526, 2002.
17. Frankel AE, Hall PD. Bacterial and plant toxinsBgeneral mode of action. In Chimeric Toxins: Mechanisms of Action and Therapeutic Applications. Eds. H. Loberboum-Galski, P. Lazarovici. Taylor & Francis, London, pp. 1-13, 2002.
18. Ramage JG, Vallera DA, Black JH, Aplan PD, Kees UR, Frankel AE. The diphtheria toxin/urokinase fusion protein DTAT is selectively toxic to CD87 expressing leukemia cells. Leukemia Research 27: 79-84, 2003.
19. Frankel AE, Kreitman RJ, Pastan I, Murphy JR. Immunotoxins. In Principles of Cancer Biotherapy, Robert K. Oldham, (ed), Kluwer Academic Publishers, London, 2003, pp. 391-433
20. Frankel AE, Fleming DR, Hall PD, Powell BL, Black JH, Leftwich C, Gartenhaus  R. A phase II study of DAB389IL2 (Denileukin diftitox) in patients with fluadarabine refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Clinical Cancer Research 9: 3555-3561, 2003.
21. Frankel AE, Kreitman RJ. Immunotoxin therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: molecular genetics, biology, diagnosis and management. Ed. G.B. Faguet, Humana Press, Totawa, NJ, pp. 299-314, 2003.
22. Urieto JO, Liu TF, Black JH, Cohen KA, Hall PD, Willingham MC, Pennell LK, Hogge DE, Kreitman RJ, Frankel AE. Expression and purification of the recombinant diphtheria fusion toxin DT388IL3 for phase I clinical trials. Protein Expression and Purification 33: 123-133, 2004.
23. Frankel AE, Hall PD, Cao D, Liu TF, Moors M, Cohen KA, Thorburn AM, Kreitman RJ. GM-CSF receptor targeted therapy of human leukemia. In Cytotoxins and Immunotoxins for Cancer Therapy, eds. K. Kawakami, B.B. Aggarwal, R.K. Puri. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp.149-169, 2005.
24. Posada JG, Frankel AE.Monoclonal antibody therapy of cancer. In: The Molecular Basis of Cancer, Ed: J.Mendelsohn, P.M. Howley, M.A. Israel, J.W. Gray, and C.B. Thompson. Saunders, Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA, pp.671-678, 2008.
25. Nymeyer H, Lappi DA, Higgins D, Noe CE, Frankel AE. Substance P-saporin for the treatment of intractable pain. In: Next Generation Antibody-linked Drug Conjugates (ADC) and Immunotoxins—Milestones in Drug Therapy, eds. Grawander U, Barth S. Springer International, Gewerbestrasse, Switzerland, pp. 107-130, 2017.

Books/Textbooks
1. Frankel A. Ed. Immunotoxins.  Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1988.
2. Frankel AE. Ed. Genetically engineered toxins.  Marcel Dekker, New York, 1992.
3. Frankel AE. Ed. Clinical Applications of Immunotoxins. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 1998.

 

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